California Partners in Flight Coniferous Forest Bird Conservation Plan Species Account

SPECIES: Vaux’s Swift (Chaetura vauxi)

Author: John Sterling (Jones & Stokes)

Shortcut to Action Plan Summary

Shortcut to Scientific References

SUBSPECIES STATUS: Five subspecies, but only C. v. vauxi breeds in western United States and Canada.

MANAGEMENT STATUS: Vaux’s Swift is a California Species of Concern (DFG).

RANGE MAPS (California): From Sterling and Paton (1996)—Figure 1. Current distribution of Vaux's Swift and old-growth redwood in northwestern California. Old-growth redwood distribution based on Fox (1989). Open circles=no swifts detected on murrelet transect; Filled circles=swifts detected on murrelet transect; Filled squares=probable swift breeding site based on Shuford (1993). Numbered polygons: (1) Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park, (2) Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, (3) Redwood National Park, (4) Pacific Lumber Company lands, (5) Humboldt Redwoods State Park, (6) Miranda, (7) Russian Gulch/Van Damme State Parks, (8) Standish Hickey State Park, (9) Armstrong Redwoods State Park, (10) Samuel P. Taylor State Park.


From Sterling and Paton (1996)—Figure 2. Current distribution of Vaux’s Swift in California. Open circle=no detections on BBS route, Filled circle=detections on BBS route, Filled square=single and multiple detections based on data from Am. Birds and unpublished sightings.


  1. Historical references:
  1. Current breeding distribution:
    a. Point counts: Of 4,452 point counts conducted throughout the Six Rivers
National Forest during the spring and summer of 1995, Vaux’s Swifts were detected on only two during the breeding season. During this study, there were two additional sightings not on point counts. All detections were from 35-45 miles inland (John Hunter and Gjon Hazard

During 129 Marbled Murrelet surveys conducted in 1989 from Del Norte to Sonoma County, Vaux’s Swifts were detected on 48 (37.2%) of these surveys (Sterling and Paton 1996) (see fig.1).

b. Mist netting: no information

c. Nest searching: no current information

    d. Breeding Bird Atlas
Sonoma County (Burridge 1995): Suspected breeding pairs were found along
the northwestern coast, the coast near Salmon Creek and inland valleys near Healdsburg, Cloverdale, Geyserville, Santa Rosa and Sebastopol. Several nests were confirmed in man-made chimneys in Sebastopol, Santa Rosa and Healdsburg.

Marin County (Shuford 1993): Nests only in small numbers, with most
sightings on the southern part of Bolinas Ridge.

Monterey County (Roberson and Tenney 1993): Prior to 1980 there were no
reports of suspected breeding. Since then, numerous sightings of pairs in
the Big Sur region suggest that a small, local population has become

Humboldt County (Hunter, J.E., Schmidt, G.A., Power, J., and Fix, D. in
The study period was 1995 to 1999. We "surveyed" A total of 425 blocks were surveyed including: 18 blocks with confirmed breeding, 30 blocks with probable breeding, and 80 blocks with possible breeding. This info should be considered "draft"; maps and raw data printouts are not yet ready for release. All confirmed records were from within the redwood zone.

e. BBS route: See Figure 2.

f. Other/Local opinion: see Appendix A.


I. Average territory size: Not territorial (Bull and Collins 1993). Home range included up to 5.4 kmfrom nest, however most of the time, the radio-tagged swifts were within 1.0 km of nest (Bull and Beckwith 1993).

II. Time of occurrence and seasonal movements.

A. Arrival date on breeding grounds: mid April to mid May

B. Departure date from breeding grounds: mid August to early September

C. Spring migration period: mid April to late May

D. Fall migration period: mid August to early October

E. Extent of wintering in CA: very rare in winter along central and north coast from Monterey County (Roberson 1985) north to Lake Earl in Del Norte County (Harris 1996). Sometimes roosting in flocks in snags. Also very rare in winter in southern California (Garrett and Dunn 1981).

III. Migration stop-over needs/characteristics:

IV. Nest type: open cup nest attached by saliva on one side to a structure such as the interior wall of a hollow snag or a man-made chimney (Bull and Collins 1993).

V.  Foraging strategy: Forage for aerial insects while on the wing. Often forage over ponds and lakes
and other sites with concentrations of their prey including air thermals. Radio-tagged swifts in Oregon foraged 20-50 meters above conifer forests 60% of their time and over grasslands 10% of their time, however with less than 2% of open water in their study area, swifts selectively foraged over water 30% of their time (Bull and Collins 1993).

VI. Displays: Aerial courtship display consists of both birds flying close together and raising wings to aV-wing display and holding that position for a few seconds. Differs from similar display in Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica) in that the birds do not rock back and forth, but hold wings and body steady (pers. obs.).

VII. Social Organization:

A. Typical breeding densities: No estimated or measured densities are published.

B. Mating system: Monogamous; pairs form shortly after arrival on breeding grounds (Bull and Collins 1993). The extent or existence of extra-pair copulations is unknown.

C. Delayed breeding (where are immature birds?): Unknown but probably breeding at 1 year (Bull and Collins 1993).

D. Post fledging biology of offspring (where do they go and when?): Some remain at nest chamber, others join communal roosts within a few days of fledging (Bull and Collins 1993). All birds migrate south in August and September.

E. Post breeding social behavior (mixed species flocks, or simply migrate away?): Most join communal roosts (Bull and Collins 1993) and during migration will often form large flocks. They often roost in large chimneys during migration with very large flocks known from communal roosts in the Los Angeles area.

VIII. Clutch size: range 4-7 eggs; (mean 5.80 SD 0.67) in northwestern California (unpublished datafrom 1920-30’s egg collections of John Davis, C.I. Clay, G.A. Howlett and John Zerlang).

IX. Incubating sex: Ventral brood patch on both parents (Bull and Collins 1993).

X. Incubation period: 18-19 days (Baldwin and Zaczkowski 1963).

XI. Nestling period: Young fledge 28 days after hatching (Baldwin and Zaczkowski 1963), and brooding occurs during first week after hatching (Bull and Collins 1993).

XII. Development at hatching: altricial (naked).

XIII. Number of broods: one as far as known (Bull and Collins 1993).

XIV. Who tends the young: both parents feed young (Bull and Collins 1993).

XV. Diet:

A. Major food items (by season): aerial arthropods throughout the year (Bull and Collins 1993). Bull and Beckwith (1993) quantified 223 food boluses that included 43% Homoptera, 27% Diptera, 18% Ephermerida and a few Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, spiders and other arthropods.

B. Drinking: They drink while on the wing. Often seen drinking by skimming over the surface of lakes and ponds. They may possibly drink rain drops.

XVI. Wintering ground needs and distribution: General wintering distribution for species occurs over a wide range from central Mexico south to Venezuela. However, the exact wintering distribution for California population (C. v. vauxi) is not well known due to difficulty in distinguishing them from the resident populations in the wintering range.


I. Overview of breeding habitat: Breeding forested habitat varies from east-side ponderosa pine, to Douglas fir and mixed-conifer in the Sierra Nevada, coastal redwood, and Douglas fir in inland sites in the northcoast ranges. Other locations are situated within suburban areas where nests are located in suitable chimneys.

II. Nest Site.

    1. Substrate (species): In California, redwood, Douglas fir, ponderosa pine are used as nest sites; in Oregon, additional species include grand fir and bigleave maple (Acer macrophyllum) (Bull and Collins 1993) and in Montana, western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) (Baldwin and Zaczkowski 1963).

    3. Height of nest: Nest placement averaged 1.6 m. above bottom of chamber in Oregon (Bull and Collins 1993), and in California nests were reported from 8 inches to 8 feet from bottom of chamber or ground (Bent 1940).

    5. Height of plant: In Oregon, grand fir nest trees averaged 25 m. tall (Bull and Collins 1993). In California there is little quantified data, but Dawson (1923) and Bent (1940) reported that nests were found in burned and hollow redwood snags up to 60 feet high.

    7. Nest concealment: within cavity.
III. Vegetation surrounding the nest IV. Landscape factors SPECIAL FACTORS: Factors influencing a species occurrence and viability.
  1. Brood parasitisim: None

  3. Dietary: Diet is restricted to small aerial arthropods.

  5. Sensitivity to human-induced disturbance: Nests in man-made chimneys are vulnerable to human disturbance especially from fires in the fireplace during the nesting season

  7. Pesticide use: Effects of pesticides are unknown. Pesticides may reduce prey availability.

  9. Predators: No predators reported although small mammals and snakes may take nestlings/eggs from nests.

  11. Exotic species invasion/encroachment: No effects on swifts

  13. Other: Vaux’s Swifts rely on the presence of suitable nest sites such as large, hollow snags, chimneys and perhaps, old Pileated Woodpecker nest cavities

POPULATION TREND: Little known and current knowledge is limited to Breeding Bird Survey data at This data should be interpreted with caution as the survey method may not accurately or appropriately measure Vaux’s Swift population trends.


  1. Age and sex ratios: Bull and Collins (1993) reported that in three communal roosts in ne Oregon in August, the percentage of fledglings caught as compared to adults varied from 29-72%.

  3. Productivity measure(s): Productivity is largely unknown.

  5. Survivorship: Live span and survivorship largely unknown (Bull and Collins 1993).

  7. Dispersal: Radio-tagged swifts were found within 5.4 km of nest site during a study in ne Oregon. Swifts spent the majority of time within "close proximity" to nest stand (58%) and when "away" from the nest site, they spent 60% of their time within 1 km of the nest (Bull and Beckwith 1993). Not known from California, but dispersal behavior is likely to be similar to swift behavior in ne Oregon.
MANAGEMENT ISSUES: Primarily forest management of suitable nest sites and their recruitment.

ASSOCIATED SPECIES: Primary and secondary cavity nesting species that would benefit from snag management for nest sites of Vaux’s Swifts include: Pileated, Hairy and White-headed Woodpeckers, Red-breasted and Williamson’s Sapsuckers, Purple Martin, Tree and Violet-green Swallows, White-breasted, Red-breasted and Pygmy Nuthatches and Mountain Chickadee.


  1. Develop database of nest sites and their characteristics.
  2. Study how far Vaux’s Swifts range from their nests and how that distance varies by habitat, stage of nesting cycle, or time of day. Results from these studies will be important in informing researchers on how to appropriately interpret datasets from various census methods/programs. Furthermore, a standard species-specific census method should be developed based upon these results.
  3. Study recruitment rates of suitable nest trees in different habitats and bioregions in the state as well as the extent of residual snags in logged stands and the length of time these snags remain standing after logging of adjacent or surrounding forest.
  4. Study effects of various forest management regimes on density of suitable nest sites and swift populations/reproductive success.
  5. Investigate the relationship between old Pileated Woodpecker (their excavated holes) and Vaux’s Swift nest sites in California.

Section 2: Action plan summary.

STATUS: Common near coast in regions with old-growth or mature stands of redwood and other conifers. Locally rare at inland sites in the northcoast range, locally uncommon in the mid-elevations of the Sierra Nevada (1,500 to 4,500 ft.), locally uncommon east of the Sierra Nevada/Cascade divide in northeastern California. Locally uncommon at inland valleys from Santa Clara County north to Sonoma County where they nest in man-made chimneys.

HABITAT NEEDS: Suitable nest sites are required i.e. large hollow snags, snags with large exit holes—broken tops or old Pileated Woodpecker cavities, brick man-made chimneys without insulated pipe inserts or screen spark-arresters. Close proximity to large water bodies that attract concentration of aerial insect prey may be important.

CONCERNS: Chief concerns are the effects of forest management on the availability of nest sites, especially clear cutting, selective harvesting of mature or old-growth trees, and selective snag removal.

OBJECTIVES and ACTIONS: The primary long-term objective would be to increase availability of suitable nest trees/snags through changes in forest management. The primary short-term objective would be to identify the current nest sites, especially at inland locations and provide protection to these currently used nest trees/snags.


American Ornithologists' Union. 1983. Checklist of North American Birds. 6th ed. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas.

Baldwin, P. H., and Hunter, W. F. 1963. Nesting and nest visitors of the Vaux's Swift in Montana. Auk 80:81-85.

Baldwin, P. H., and Zaczkowski, N. K. 1963. Breeding biology of the Vaux Swift. Condor 65:400-406.

Bent, A.C. 1940. Vaux’s Swift in Life Histories of North American Cuckoos, Goatsuckers, Hummingbirds and their Allies. Smithsonian Institution, United States Museum. Bulletin 176.

Bull, E. L. 1991. Summer roosts and roosting behavior of Vaux’s Swifts in old-growth forests. Northwest Naturalist 72:78-82.

Bull, E. L., and Beckwith, R. C. 1993. Diet and foraging behavior of Vaux's Swifts in northeastern Oregon. Condor 95:1016-1023.

Bull, E. L., and Collins, C. T. 1993. Vaux’s Swift (Chaetura vauxi). in The Birds of North America (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). No. 77. The Acad. of Nat. Sci. Philadelphia.

Bull, E. L., and Cooper, J. D. 1991. Vaux's Swift nests in hollow trees. W. Birds 22:85-91.

Bull, E. L., and Hohman, J. E.. 1993. The association between Vaux's Swifts and old-growth forests in northeastern Oregon. W. Birds 24:38-42.

Burridge, B. (ed.) 1995. Sonoma County Breeding Bird Atlas. Madrone Audubon Soc., Santa Rosa, CA.

Carey, A. B. 1989. Wildlife associated with old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest. Nat. Areas J. 9:151-162.

Dawson, W. L. 1923. The Birds of California. South Moulton Co., San Diego.

Gaines, D. 1992. Birds of Yosemite and the East Slope. Artemisia Press, Lee Vining, CA.

Garrett, K. and J. Dunn. 1981. Birds of Southern California: Status and Distribution. Los Angeles Audubon Society, LA, CA.

Grinnell, J., and Miller, A.H. 1944. The distribution of the birds of California. Pac. Coast Avifauna 27.

Grinnell, J. and T.I. Storer. 1924. Animal Life in the Yosemite. Univ. of CA. Press. Berkeley, CA. p.752.

Grinnell, J. and M.W. Wythe. 1927. Directory to the Bird-life of the San Francisco Bay Region. Cooper Ornithological Society. Pacific Coast Avifauna No. 18.

Harris, S.W. 1996. Northwestern California Birds. Humboldt State Univ. Press, Arcata, CA.

Huff, M. H., and Raley, C. M.. 1991. Regional patterns of diurnal breeding bird communities in Oregon and Washington. in Wildlife and vegetation communities of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests. L. F. Ruggiero, K. B. Aubry, A. B. Carey, and M. H. Huff. (eds.). pp. 177-206. U.S. Forest Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285.

Hunter, J.E., Schmidt, G.A., Power, J., and Fix, D. in prep. Humboldt County Breeding Bird Atlas.Redwood Region Audubon Society, Eureka, CA.

Lundquist, R. W., and Mariani, J. M.. 1991. Nesting habitat and abundance of snag-dependent birds in the southern Washington Cascade range. in Wildlife and vegetation communities of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests. L. F. Ruggiero, K. B. Aubry, A. B. Carey, and M. H. Huff. (eds.). pp. 221-240. U. S. Forest Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285.

Maillard, J. 1927. The Birds and Mammals of Modoc County, California. Proc. Calif. Acad. of Sciences. Vol. XVI, No. 10 pp. 261-359.

Ralph, C. J., Paton, P. W., and Taylor, C. A.. 1991. Habitat association patterns of breeding birds and small mammals in Douglas-fir/hardwood stands in northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. in Wildlife and vegetation communities of unmanaged Douglas-fir forests. L. F. Ruggiero, K. B. Aubry, A. B. Carey, and M. H. Huff, (eds.). pp. 379-394. U.S. Forest Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285.

Roberson, D. 1985. Monterey Birds. Monterey Peninsula Audubon Society, Carmel, CA.

Roberson, D., and Tenney, C. (eds). 1993. Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Monterey County, California. Monterey Peninsula Audubon Soc., Carmel, CA.

Shuford, D. 1993. Marin County Breeding Bird Atlas. Bushtit Press, Bolinas, CA.

Sterling, J. and P. Paton. 1996. Breeding Distribution of Vaux’s Swift in California. Western Birds 27: 30-40.

Thompson, B. C. 1977. Behavior of Vaux's Swifts nesting and roosting in a chimney. Murrelet 58:73-77.

Zeiner, D., Laudenslayer, W. F., Mayer, K., & White, M. (eds.). 1990. California's Wildlife, vol. 2. California Dept. Fish and Game, Sacramento.

Appendix A. Observations of Vaux's Swifts in California during the June and July breeding season. Updated from Sterling and Paton (1996)—sources include American Birds files and local observers.


Butte Butte Meadows June & July 1973 D. Gaines

Contra Costa Walnut Creek 12 June 1972 W. Purcell

Contra Costa Alamo 17 June 1981 J. Richmond

Del Norte Crescent City 8 July 1982 J. Hornstein

Del Norte Yurok, Klamath River 6 June 1990 G. Lester

Del Norte Yurok, Klamath River 18 June 1990 A. Baron

Del Norte Yurok, Klamath River 7 July 1990 G. Lester

El Dorado Wright's Lake 17 July 1955 W. Minturn

El Dorado Wright's Lake, 7,000' 14 July 1956 A. Craig

El Dorado Tahoe City 16 July 1959 G. McCaskie

El Dorado China Flat 9 June 1962 F. Evenden

El Dorado Tahoe City 16 June 1962 P. de Benedictus

El Dorado Union Valley Res. 6 June 1987 E. Harper

El Dorado Kyburz 21 May 1993 M. Johnson

El Dorado S. F. Rubicon River 15 June 1999 J. Hunter

Fresno Kinsh Flat 29 June 1975 R. Hansen

Fresno Teakettle 1 June 1990 K. Purcell

Fresno Teakettle 7 June 1990 K. Purcell

Fresno Markwood 18 June 1990 K. Purcell

Humboldt Orleans 30 May 1988 M. Robbins

Humboldt Arcata and Eureka each summer many observers in chimneys

Humboldt Hoopa Valley June-July R. LeValley

Lassen south Eagle Lake mid June 1974 S. Laymon

Lassen 12 mi. W. of Susanville 7 July 1979 M. Mans

Lassen Manzanita Lake 30 July 1979 B. & C. Yutzy

Lassen Johnstonville 4 June 1980 B. Duel

Lassen Crater Lake 7 July 1984 P. Metropolis

Lassen near Westwood 13 July 1985 J. Hornstein

Lassen Blue Lake, S. Warner Mtns. 20 June 1990 J. Sterling

Lassen Clear Creek 16 June 1997 T. Manolis

Lassen Clear Creek 27 July 1997 T. Manolis

Lassen Susanville/Hobo Camp 16 June 1997 T. Manolis

Madera Rainbow Falls 28 July 1997 N. Lethaby

Marin Lake Lagunitas 15 July 1970 A.L. Carl

Marin Alpine Lake 22 June 1971 W. Purcell

Marin Palomarin 16 June-7 July1979 PRBO

Marin Five Brooks 31 May 1980 J. Evans

Marin Bolinas Lagoon 14 June 1980 J. Evans

Marin Novato 16 July 1980 D. Shuford

Marin Palomarin 3 June 1977 PRBO

Marin Five Brooks 17 June 1977 B. Sorrie

Marin Kent Lake 18 July 1981 D. Shuford

Marin Terralinda 30 May 1982 B. Lenarz

Marin Carson Ridge 5 June 1982 D. Shuford

Marin Palomarin 23 June 1982 PRBO

Marin Garden Club Cyn. 4 July 1982 D. Shuford

Marin Galloway Cyn. all June 1983 D. DeSante

Marin Galloway Cyn. 1 June 1985 PRBO

Marin Bolinas Ridge 30 June 1985 D. Holway

Marin Bolinas 27 July 1985 A. Edwards

Marin Los Gallinas pond 13 July 1988 D. Holway

Marin Bolinas Lagoon 30 July 1995 K. Hansen in chimney

Mariposa Yosemite 17 June 1969 A. Baldridge

Mariposa Yosemite 13 June 1971 T. Chandik

Mariposa Tamarack Flat 25 July 1983 W. Bausman

Mariposa Vernal Falls 20 July 1984 Chisholm

Mariposa North Dome Trail 11 June 1985 R. Marlowe

Modoc Buck Creek 18 June 1975 D. Winkler

Modoc Lassen Creek 21 June 1975 D. Winkler

Modoc Day 8 June 1980 S. Laymon

Modoc Whitehorse Flat River 3 June 1985 M. Robbins

Modoc Thoms Creek & Hwy 299 5 June 1985 J. Greenhouse

Modoc Clear Lake 15 July 1985 D. Shuford

Modoc Soup Creek, S.Warner Mtns. 20 June 1990 J. Sterling

Modoc Ft. Bidwell 11 August 1988 J. Sterling in chimney

Modoc Ft. Bidwell June & July 1990 J. Sterling in chimney

Modoc Ft. Bidwell June & July 1991 J. Sterling in chimney

Modoc near Eagleville 15 July 1990 J. Sterling

Modoc Cedar Pass June & July 1991 J. Sterling

Modoc S. Warner Mtns. 6 July 1991 A. Baron

Modoc N. Happy Camp Mtn. 7 June 1998 B. Williams pair entered snag

Mono Paha Campground 20 July 1985 H. Green

Monterey Torres and Grimes Creek 5 August 1984 D. Roberson

Monterey Big Sur River Mouth 8 June 1985 D. Roberson

Monterey Partington Cyn. 29 June 1991 D. Roberson

Monterey Big Sur River Mouth June to Sept. 1996 D. Roberson

Monterey Big Sur River Mouth summer 2000 D. Roberson

Monterey Lower Stoney Res. 19 June 2000 J. Banks

Nevada Boca Res. 16 July 1959 G. McCaskie

Nevada Sagehen Creek 19 July 1966 H. Cogswell

Placer Tahoe City 20 June 1982 D. Yee

Placer French Meadows 27 June 1982 T. Chandik

Placer Kyburz 21 May 1993 M. Johnson

Plumas Buck's Lake 9 August 1973 R. Stallcup

Plumas Butterfly 2 July 1974 P. Metropolis

Plumas Chester 5 July 1984 H. Green

Plumas L. Almanor 22 July 1987 H. Green

San Mateo Skyline Ridge 16 June 1981 D. Houk

San Mateo Skyline Ranch 29 June 1986 P. Noble

San Mateo Skyline Ranch 13 July 1986 P. Noble

San Mateo Pescadero June & July 1987 H. Green

San Mateo Gazos Creek 1 July 1987 H. Green

San Mateo Gazos Creek 8 June 1988 H. Green

San Mateo Skyline Ridge 11 June 1988 W. Bausman

San Mateo Ano Nuevo 6 July 1988 P. Metropolis

San Mateo Portola SP 27 July 1997 P. Metropolis nest in chimney

Santa Clara Los Gatos 16 July 1957 E. Smith in chimney

Santa Clara Saratoga 18 June 1959 E. Smith in chimney

Santa Clara Rancho San Antonio 4 July 1986 A. Edwards

Santa Clara Coyote Creek 6 June 1987 D. Roberson

Santa Clara Vasona Res. 6 June 1987 W. Bausman

Santa Clara Fremont Older O.S.P. 22 June 1987 W. Bausman

Santa Clara Saratoga 7 July 1987 W. Bausman

Santa Clara Los Gatos 28 June 1991 J. DuBois in chimney

Santa Clara Stevens Creek Res. 21 June 1997 M. Mammoser

Santa Clara Calabazas Creek 21 June 1997 S. Rottenborn high count

Santa Clara Los Altos Hills 23 July 1998 B. Dale in chimney

Santa Clara Saratoga 22 July 1999 R. Givens in chimney

Santa Cruz Santa Cruz Swamp 17 July 1955 A. Craig

Santa Cruz Aptos 21 July 1985 B. Labar in chimney

Santa Cruz Ben Lomond 6 June 1987 N. Naslund in chimney

Santa Cruz Summit Meadows 16 June 1987 D. Suddjian

Santa Cruz UC Santa Cruz 17 June 1987 D. Suddjian

Santa Cruz Big Basin S.P. 20 June 1987 D. Suddjian

Santa Cruz Soquel 26 June 1987 D. Suddjian

Santa Cruz Big Basin S.P. 30 June 1987 D. Suddjian

Santa Cruz Brookdale 3 July 1987 N. Naslund in chimney

Santa Cruz Henry Cowell S.P. 15 July 1987 D. Suddjian

Santa Cruz San Lorenzo River 24 July 1987 D. Suddjian

Santa Cruz Sycamore Grove 5 June 1988 D. Suddjian

Santa Cruz San Lorenzo River 25 June 1988 D. Suddjian

Santa Cruz Brookdale 12 July 1988 N. Naslund in chimney

Santa Cruz Scotts Valley 25 July 1988 N. Naslund in chimney

Santa Cruz Big Basin S.P. 11 June 1989 P. Paton

Santa Cruz Blooms Creek Campground 27 June 1989 N. Naslund

Santa Cruz Aptos Village 20 July 1999 D. Suddjian in chimney

Santa Cruz Aptos Village 12 August D. Suddjian nest in chimney

Santa Cruz Big Creek 2 June 2000 D. Suddjian

Santa Cruz San Lorenzo River 7 June 2000 C. Em? in chimney

Santa Cruz San Lorenzo River 9 June 2000 C. Em? in snag

Santa Cruz Rancho Del Oso 2 July 2000 T. Ne?

Santa Cruz Big Basin Redwoods 10-29 July 2000 D. Suddjian in snag

Shasta Ft. Cook 2 June 1971 T. Manolis

Shasta Burney Falls 10 July 1979 B. & C. Yutzy

Shasta Hat Creek town June & July 1990 J. Sterling

Shasta Burney Falls June & July 1990 J. Sterling

Shasta Hat Creek at Pit River June & July 1990 J. Sterling

Shasta Hat Creek at Pit River June & July 1991 J. Sterling

Shasta Burney Falls June & July 1991 J. Sterling

Shasta Lake Britton 26 July 2000 B. Yutzy ~300 birds

Sierra Chapman Creek 20 July 1962 F. Evenden

Sierra Carman Valley 9 June 1998 D. Shuford

Sierra Bassett’s Lodge 12 June 1999 M. Eaton

Sierra near Sierra City 12 June 2000 D. Shuford

Siskiyou Bull Mtn. 18 June 1980 S. Laymon

Siskiyou Cedar Lake 22 June 1980 B. & C. Yutzy

Siskiyou Butler Creek 2 June 1985 M. Robbins

Siskiyou Crepo Creek 1 June 1986 M. Robbins

Siskiyou Thompson Creek 27 May 1987 M. Robbins

Siskiyou Somes Bar 30 May 1988 M. Robbins

Siskiyou Seiad 3 June 1989 M. Robbins

Sonoma Gualala 16 June 1956 W. Pursell

Sonoma Timber Hill 17 July 1956 G. Bolander

Sonoma Duncan Mills 25 May 1956 J. Kelly

Sonoma Santa Rosa 10 July 1962 N. Mestechin

Sonoma Sonoma nested in '61,'63 N. Mestechin

Sonoma Sonoma 11 July 1979 L. Binford in chimney

Sonoma Gualala 11 July 1982 T. Gates

Sonoma Austin Creek 27 July 1983 D. Beall

Sonoma Two Rock 13 July 1986 R. Marlowe

Sonoma Healdsburg 22 July 1986 J. Smith

Sonoma Duncan’s Landing 17 June 1989 R. Rudesill in chimney

Sonoma Monte Rio 24 June 1989 D. Willard

Sonoma Stewart’s Point 25 May 1990 B. Lenarz in chimney

Sonoma Dry Creek 2 July 1990 Bird Rescue Ctr. nestlings

Sonoma Healdsburg 20 July 1990 M. McCulley

Sonoma Gualala 1 June 1991 M. Parmeter

Sonoma Oakmont summer 1999 B. Burridge many in chimneys

Tehama Chico Meadows 13 July 1962 T. Rodgers

Tehama Elan Creek Campground 15 July 1962 E.Hodnette

Tehama Butte Creek (2000 ft. elev.) June-July 2000 J. Sterling

Trinity Waterman Ridge 20 July 1982 K. Rosenberg

Trinity Hayfork 20 June 1995 G. Hazard

Trinity Hyampom 6 July-25 Aug.1995 G. Hazard

Trinity Hayfork 14 June 1997 T. Easterla

Trinity Coffie Creek Road 14 June 1998 S. Glover

Tulare Colby Meadow 7 July 1952 P. Raven

Tulare Hogietown Picnic Area 7 July 1973 A. Baldridge

Tulare Log Meadow 6 July 1974 D. DeSante nest in tree

Tulare Near Badger 19 June 1975 R. Hansen

Tulare Log Meadow 9 July 1979 L. Norris

Tulare Park Ridge Lookout 18 June 1980 L. Norris

Tulare Big Stump 2 August 1982 J. Warner

Tulare Potwisha Campground 10 June-1 Aug.1984 J. Boone

Tulare Wolverton Area 12 June 1984 J. Boone

Tulare Crescent Meadow 26 June 1984 G. San Miguel

Tulare Moro Rock 4 July 1984 J. Boone

Tulare Big Stump 3 June-30 July 1985 J. Warner

Tulare Ash Mountain 17 June 1985 L. Norris

Tulare Grant Grove 28 June 1985 G. San Miguel

Tulare Lodgepole 30 June 1985 J. Boone

Tulare Pine Camp 30 June 1985 G. San Miguel

Tulare Big Baldy Trail 7 July 1985 G. San Miguel

Tulare Log Meadow 11 July 1985 J. Boone

Tulare Potwisha Campground 31 July 1985 J. Boone

Tulare Big Stump 4-11 June 1986 J. Warner

Tulare Wolverton Meadow 18 June 1986 J. Boone

Tulare Crescent Meadow 25 July 1986 D. Graber

Tulare Grant Grove 16 July 1987 G. San Miguel

Tulare Big Stump 19 July 1987 J. Warner

Tulare Redwood Saddle 10-11 June 1988 G. San Miguel

Tulare South Fork Campground 12 June-9 Aug.1988 T. Jeffrey

Tulare Grant Grove 14 July 1988 G. San Miguel

Tulare Wolverton Meadow 2 August 1988 J. Warner

Tulare Wolverton Meadow 24 June 1989 G. San Miguel

Tulare Dorst Creek 6 June 1990 G. San Miguel

Tulare Dorst Creek 18 June 1997 D. Roberson

Tuolumne Crane Flat June & July 1971 M. Mans

Tuolumne Crane Flat 8 July 1973 M. Mans

Tuolumne Crane Flat 1 July 1974 ?

Tuolumne Hodgdon Meadow 27 June 1982 Keeler

Tuolumne Crane Flat 9-28 July 1985 J. Lovio

Tuolumne Crane Flat 9 June 1986 P. Metropolis

Tuolumne Crane Flat 20 June 1986 D. Suddjian

Tuolumne Crane Flat 26 June 1987 D. Suddjian

Tuolumne Harden Flat 21 July 1988 R. Erickson

Tuolumne Siesta Lake 5 July 1999 M. Eaton

Yuba W. of Yuba Pass 16 June 1973 ?

Yuba Yuba Summit 12 June 1976  J. Richmond

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